Category Archives: Conferences

7 September 2017 – CHORD Conference – Retailing and Distribution in the Seventeenth Century

7 September 2017

University of Wolverhampton

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Trade Card of Samuel Spencer, Furniture Maker, late 17th/early 18th century, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 47.71.3, Gift of Bella C. Landauer, 1925. Image courtesy of http://www.metmuseum.org/

Programme

10.00 – 10.30     Coffee and welcome

10.30 – 11.00     Alex Taylor, University of Sheffield, UK

Bristol’s first tawny age: the tobacco trade to Bristol in the seventeenth century

11.00 – 11.30     Tom Rusbridge, University of Birmingham, UK

Innovations in Tanning in Early Modern Britain and Europe

11.30 – 12.00   Glynis Hughs, independent researcher, UK

‘What Do You Lack?’ The Role of the Itinerant Trader in Seventeenth Century England

12.00 – 12.30   Jessica Cunningham, Maynooth University, Co Kildare, Ireland

‘Establishing excellence and consumer confidence: Dublin’s goldsmiths’ guild in the seventeenth century’

12.30 – 13.30     Lunch

13.30 – 14.00     Laurie Lindey, Institute of Historical Research, University of London, UK

The London furniture trade, 1640-1720

14.00 – 14.30     Evana Downes, University of Kent, UK

Balancing the urban ‘stomach’: the impact of regulation on London’s food vendors

14.30 – 14.50     Mabel Winter, University of Sheffield, UK

The Case of Thompson & Company: commerce, banking, and politics in the late seventeenth century

14.50 – 15.30   Coffee

15.30 – 16.00 Sébastien Pautet, University Paris Diderot (Paris VII), France

Make It Come True. Far East Product Imitations in Parisian Shops at the End of the Seventeenth Century

16.00 – 16.30     Charlie Taverner, Birkbeck, University of London, UK

Marginal no more: selling food on the street in seventeenth-century London

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Information

 The conference will be held on Wolverhampton City Campus, University of Wolverhampton, a short walk from Wolverhampton’s bus and train stations.

For maps and directions, please see:

http://www.wlv.ac.uk/about-us/contacts-and-maps/all-maps-and-directions/map-and-directions-for-city-campus-wolverhampton/

The fee is £ 22

To register, please complete the registration form available here (The link will take you to the University of Wolverhampton’s E-store, at http://www.estore.wlv.ac.uk/)

For further information, please e-mail Laura Ugolini at: l.ugolini@wlv.ac.uk

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Abstracts

Jessica Cunningham, Maynooth University, Co Kildare, Ireland

‘Establishing excellence and consumer confidence: Dublin’s goldsmiths’ guild in the seventeenth century’

This twenty-minute paper will explore the development of Dublin’s goldsmiths’ guild over the course of the seventeenth century as it transformed itself from a small, unregulated organisation into a large incorporated company sanctioned with the authority to regulate the production and retail of silver, gold and jewellery throughout Ireland.

The paper will examine the motivations of the early-seventeenth century goldsmiths in Dublin who consciously strove to establish excellence and autonomy in the manufacture of Irish silver. It will analyse the demographic diversity of the guild and how this impacted on the transformation of Dublin’s goldsmiths in this period. Furthermore, it will demonstrate how these goldsmiths – Irish, English, Dutch, French, German – drew on contemporary European guild practices in their vision for Dublin’s guild and the craft in Ireland. Ultimately, as it will be shown, the desire by Irish consumers for material authentication generated this decisive shift in seventeenth-century Dublin.

In addition, this paper will identify from the documentary and object evidence the methods employed by the organisation throughout the century in regulating the metalworking craft in Ireland and will evaluate whether its aims were realised or merely aspirational.

This paper’s findings, drawn on recent doctoral research, will illuminate new avenues of primary investigation and analysis into a luxury craft in seventeenth-century Ireland.

Evana Downes, University of Kent, UK

Balancing the urban ‘stomach’: the impact of regulation on London’s food vendors

Early modern vending and market regulations indicate that food vendors occupied a central role in urban hierarchies. Their practices and wares contributed not only to the continued health and stability of the individual body, but the urban body as a whole. By influencing urban diets, victuallers could help reinforce social status, positive social behaviour, and general health. By maintaining a steady supply of food (particularly during periods of dearth), and distributing it honestly, they could contribute to social stability. The activities and movements of some food vendors could also shape the urban landscape, contributing to the prosperity of some spaces, while potentially polluting others.

From the 1500s, the English Crown and Corporation of London began to emphasise the need to maintain and protect urban public health. This concern grew as the sixteenth century progressed, advancing into the seventeenth. Though ostensibly formulated to curb the spread of disease, legislation concerned with public health increasingly equated the wellbeing of the individual body to that of the body politic. As a result, early public health laws in England were tinged with a moral aspect, pitting the danger of biological contagion alongside that of social pollution.

While the effect of public health regulation on physicians and other health-workers has been well-researched, less has been written about how shifting concepts of medicine and public health impacted upon the working lives of other occupational groups. Less still has been written about the lot of London’s food vendors, whose production and distribution of nourishment to civic populations had been monitored by local authorities since the Middle Ages. This paper will discuss aspects of a new project that aims to address this gap in research. Using sources such as The Lawes of the Markette (updated throughout the seventeenth century) and sessions books and papers, it will investigate ways in which new and adapted market and vending regulations reflected and affected the experiences of victuallers in seventeenth century London. It will focus particularly on how diverse groups of victuallers – through their physical presence, occupational practices, and wares – were thought capable of negatively affecting the health of other civic members. Finally, it will consider the implications of these associations, with reference to how victualling groups were integrated into – or kept to the margins of – London’s urban hierarchy.

Glynis Hughs, independent researcher, UK

‘What Do You Lack?’ The Role of the Itinerant Trader in Seventeenth Century England

The seventeenth century itinerant trader was an elusive character, in spite of the attempts by state, local authorities or even literature to make them to conform to a narrative, they refused to comply.

Often depicted in picaresque literature and cheap print as a source for spreading immorality and criminality, they were accused of destroying the financial stability of the towns and cities and acting as a threat to local trades and companies. State legislation and civic records paint the itinerant trader as a social pariah, detrimental to all society and liable to punishment and repatriation, and frequently, such as in John Ivie’s account of the administration of Poor Relief in Salisbury, seen as a danger to the wellbeing of the settled poor. However, examination of local records such as the Salisbury Constable’s Book and the Manchester Constable’s Accounts show a different image, and in many cases the itinerant trader was not only tolerated but also provided a necessary service to the poorest in the community.

Historians have most often placed the itinerant trader within a history of Vagrancy, using such terms as “unsettled, “outcast” or even “masterless”.   However, work by Margaret Spufford has called this view into question, demonstrating through the use of wills and inventories that the role of the pedlar or petty chapman often provided a necessary service to rural communities and also acted as a bridge between the local population and the gentry. Those who left wills and inventories were likely to be licenced peddlers rather than itinerants.

In examining the entries in Hall Books, Constable Books and Quarter Sessions records, I intend to demonstrate that many itinerant traders also exhibited a strong work ethic and entrepreneurial skills. Far from being “victims of circumstance” or simply adding to the “economy of makeshifts” I consider that they added a vital component to the nascent consumer society and their presence allowed all levels of society access to the pleasures of consumption.

Laurie Lindey, Institute of Historical Research, University of London, UK

The London furniture trade, 1640-1720

This paper examines the London furniture trade in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a period which witnessed dramatic transformations in the designs, styles and construction of English furniture. While this topic has been addressed in detail in terms of object-based analyses, it has never been examined from a social, economic and cultural perspective.

Given that this presentation is limited to twenty minutes, the following topics will be briefly discussed. The paper begins with the evolution of decorative design in England in the early modern period and the effects of burgeoning consumerism. It then defines the various types of specialised artisans and craftsmen who produced new forms and styles of furniture, and the ways in which the chain of production was structured. Thereafter we identify where London furniture makers were situated. Where was furniture manufactured and where was it sold? Were particular types of furniture sold in specific areas of the metropolis? This paper identifies the geographical location of the trade in the City of London and its spread into the fashionable West End. Finally we are introduced to two London furniture makers: we discover what a Covent Garden cabinetmaker in the post Restoration period manufactured and retailed, and who his clients were, and then we explore the workshop and manufacturing network of a caned chair maker in St. Paul’s Churchyard at the close of the seventeenth century.

Sébastien Pautet, University Paris Diderot (Paris VII), France

Make It Come True. Far East Product Imitations in Parisian Shops at the End of the Seventeenth Century

The ‘Taste for China’ is probably one the most surprising and durable fashion phenomenon of the Ancien Régime. The installation of European Jesuits and merchants in China during the 17th century, the stabilization of commercial connexions between Europe and the Far-East and the great embassies between Asian and European monarchies stimulated a great consumption of Asian luxuries.

Nevertheless, the Taste for China was not only based on Asian products. Craftsmen and manufacturers have tried to produce locally some global luxuries imported from the other side of the world. Imitations and hybrids from China or Japan were encouraged by the authorities and by commercial networks (Berg, 2015). While many historians of consumption and economics have raised the interest for Asian trades and its impacts on European consumption (Berg, 2005, 2015; Coquery, 2008, 2009), the question of Asian products is now central to scholarly investigations on technology as well (Riello, Parthasarathi, 2009), and historians have emphasized the question of ‘imitation’ in the process of product innovation (Berg, 2002).

This talk aims to understand the question of imitation and invention in a global context from a technical point of view. I will focus on products sold in Parisian shops and on imitations of Chinese and Japanese products in order to understand the construction of a market for fake Asian products at the end of the seventeenth century, and its impacts on both technical and commercial cultures.

Tom Rusbridge, University of Birmingham, UK

Innovations in Tanning in Early Modern Britain and Europe

The seventeenth century in Britain marked an important crucible in which the fundamentally medieval industry of tanning – taking raw animal hides and using a series of processes and botanical materials to create leather – underwent highly significant change. On the one hand, such innovations were driven by the invention of local tanners who responded to environmental changes to generate new methods of manufacturing leather, and on the other by the outward investigation and reporting of those who travelled to Europe to observe the practices of tanners in France, Germany and Denmark, among other countries. Both ‘home-grown’ innovations and those based on foreign observation were underpinned by quotidian and domestic responses to change materials, craft and manufacture, especially as an increasing range of types of leather were released into the consumer space.

This paper will examine documentary evidence of changing tanning practices through tanning manuals and reports and assess how they represented multiple types of innovation within a single framework of understanding, as early as 1583. It responds to the conference themes by analysing new and unique methods of craft and manufacture with the context Britain’s seventeenth century and its relationship with Europe, and contextualises these developments within the print culture, trades, industry and intellectual interest which were at once both motivations for their development and vehicles through which these changes were communicated to a public audience. Ultimately, it shall argue that seventeenth century innovations in tanning had long-standing impacts for British manufactures and crafts, and seeks to undermine the notion that such innovation was confined to the eighteenth century and rise of mechanized production.

Charlie Taverner, Birkbeck, University of London, UK

Marginal no more: selling food on the street in seventeenth-century London

Lower and middling Londoners relied on informal retail for their food, but the practicalities and personalities of small-scale selling in the early modern city have been hard to recover. Most histories have marginalised urban hawkers, who traded on the move, beyond fixed sites like markets and shops. Work on women’s labour, poverty, and the growing metropolis has also sketched these figures as poor nuisances, selling awful food and switching between several badly paid jobs. Recently historians have begun to suggest hawkers, across Europe, could be substantial retailers and a force in a city’s society and economy, in which the informal sector, for food especially, was substantial. This paper proposes a methodology and theoretical approach for writing focused accounts of selling food on the street in early modern London. It shows how historians can use a broader set of sources, which break away from the reliance on judicial material – which typically shows hawkers in trouble – and representations – in which they are idealised as picturesque or comical. Using sources ranging from samples of ward records to incidental mentions in depositions, it is possible to show a fuller picture of the hawking experience. The paper also shows how considering space, as an approach, can open up our understanding of these hard-to-get-to retailers. Rather than focus on preconceived themes, a historical narrative can follow street sellers through the spaces of their day, starting with their home and closing with when they were lifted from life into art. Also, their place of work, the street, set them apart from other traders. Hawkers both contributed to and were impacted by the space’s materiality, with its traffic, noise and smell, and its conception, in the minds of Londoners. I argue that, by examining hawkers in the spaces in which they worked, we can see more clearly how they were central to the city’s food supply and retail landscape. More than that, they were central to changing ideas of metropolitan life.

 Alex Taylor, University of Sheffield, UK

Bristol’s first tawny age: the tobacco trade to Bristol in the seventeenth century

This paper explores the significance of the colonial tobacco trade in seventeenth-century Bristol. It begins by assessing the evidence for tobacco commerce in the pre-Civil War period before providing quantitative data for the levels of tobacco imports between the 1650s and 1680s. I address the occupations and affiliations of those who imported tobacco as well as some of the industry’s day-to-day practicalities. Attention is also given to the incidence of illicit trade, whether through customs fraud or direct smuggling. Available evidence derived from the Bristol wharfage books show that tobacco imports reached a zenith in the 1670s, pointing towards something of a golden or ‘tawny’ age before a decline in tobacco imports thereafter and into the eighteenth century.

Mabel Winter, University of Sheffield, UK

The Case of Thompson & Company: commerce, banking, and politics in the late seventeenth century

This paper intends to outline and discuss the social network of a seventeenth century merchant-bankers joint-stock company. The company was formed of four merchants, who had previously conducted trade in pairs but in 1670 decided to pool their resources and form a joint-stock bank, designed to loan out money at interest. The profits from which would be put into a general bank upon which the merchants could each draw on for their own individual trading ventures, provided they repaid the loaned money with interest. This venture relied on a variety of interpersonal relationships, as well as relationships forged through intermediaries and those forged purely on reputation. However, these relationships were not only commercial in nature, but political, familial, friendly, and conflicting, demonstrating the wide-ranging exploits of the four protagonists. Their wide web of credit, which spread across political, religious, geographical, familial and mercantile boundaries, created a complex and tumultuous situation once the partners went bankrupt in 1677.

The collapse of the bank in 1677 will receive particular attention due to the political manoeuvrings that aided its downfall, including interference from London city government, the East India Company, and even direct relations with the King; with the identification of at least two out of four of the main protagonists as early Whigs adding yet more intrigue to the plot. Set against the backdrop of the financial revolution, the stop on the exchequer, the early formation of party politics and the beginnings of the popish plot, this paper aims to highlight the difficulties and risks involved in early modern commerce, as well as demonstrating the depth and breadth of the relationships required to initiate such a venture. More than any other early banking venture, the bank of Woolchurch Market illuminates the complex intertwining of commercial and political identities in a society experiencing religious and political turmoil, as well as implicating an earlier start date for the English Financial Revolution.

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Conference call for papers – Retailing and Distribution in the Seventeenth Century

7 September 2017

University of Wolverhampton

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The Centre for the History of Retailing and Distribution ­invites submissions for a conference that explores retailing and distribution in the seventeenth century.

Papers focusing on any geographical area or topic are welcome. We invite both experienced and new speakers, including speakers without an institutional affiliation. Potential speakers are welcome to discuss their ideas with the organiser before submission (please see details below). Some of the themes that  might be considered include (but are not limited to):

  • Craft, manufacture and retailing
  • New commodities and old
  • Religion, charity and commerce
  • Markets, shops and shopping
  • Transport and distribution networks
  • Regulation, guilds and trade organisations
  • Chapmen, pedlars and hucksters
  • Advertising, reputation and print cultures
  • Commerce, war, disease and famine
  • Fashion, leisure and shopping

Individual papers are usually 20 minutes in length, followed by 10 minutes for questions and discussion. We also welcome shorter, 10 minute ‘work in progress’ presentations, also followed by 10 minutes for discussion.

To submit a proposal, please send title and abstract of c.300 to 400 words, specifying whether you are proposing a 10 or a 20 minute presentation to Laura Ugolini, at l.ugolini@wlv.ac.uk by 27 April 2017.

If you are unsure whether to submit a proposal or would like to discuss your ideas, please e-mail Laura Ugolini at l.ugolini@wlv.ac.uk

The conference will be held on Wolverhampton City Campus, University of Wolverhampton, a short walk from Wolverhampton’s bus and train stations.

For further information, please e-mail Laura Ugolini at: l.ugolini@wlv.ac.uk

or see the conference web-page, here: http://home.wlv.ac.uk/~in6086/conf2017.htm

Image: Trade Card of Samuel Spencer, Furniture Maker, late 17th/early 18th century, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 47.71.3, Gift of Bella C. Landauer, 1925. Image courtesy of http://www.metmuseum.org/

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2016 Conference blogs – Medieval Markets and the Portable Antiquities Scheme

Michael Lewis and Eljas Oksanen, Portable Antiquities Scheme

Medieval Markets and the Portable Antiquities Scheme

The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) was set up in 1997 to record small archaeological finds made by members of the public, mostly by metal-detecting. Managed by the British Museum and with a network of Finds Liaison Officers, interns and volunteers across England and Wales, the scheme’s online database (finds.org.uk) describes over a million objects with more than 80,000 being added every year. These finds cover a vast range of material culture from neolithic arrowheads to medieval coins and post-medieval candlesticks. The ‘medieval’ (1066-1540) dataset is the second largest by chronological period, and contains some 165,000 objects with more added every day. The medieval portion of the dataset has not been examined as thoroughly as, for example, the Roman. Consequently the GIS-led project Placing Medieval Markets in their Landscape Context through the Portable Antiquities Scheme Data at the British Museum aims to evaluate it in the context of studying the emergence, growth and decline of medieval commerce, markets and fairs.

As a national dataset the PAS finds are evidence of the use and availability of metalwork objects across long periods of time. For example, Figure 1 shows the chronological breakdown of some 65,000 medieval PAS non-coin finds that have been dated to within 200 years. A substantial increase in the numbers of finds to the fourteenth century is followed by a period of clear decline, before finds start to pick up again in the sixteenth century. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the PAS data therefore reflects both the population and economic growth across the Central Middle Ages, and the demographic catastrophe of the Black Death (first arriving in 1348 to England). The difficulty in the close dating of these objects is a challenge to any temporal investigation of the PAS database, of course, but it is lent greater credence through comparative analysis with other independent datasets. Martin Allen’s research on the amount of coinage in circulation, and Carenza Lewis’ ceramics data from 1,700 test pits dug in eastern English rural settlements, reflect a very similar decline from around the mid-fourteenth century. Together these speak for a more maximalist interpretation of the impact of the Black Death on economic and consumer activity.

Figure 1

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An area of particular interest to our project is the relationship of the PAS data to rural market sites. These served as a point of access to commercial networks for the vast majority of the medieval population, while at the same time being poorly served by documentary sources. Weekly markets were a key component of peasant economy through the Middle Ages, and over the last few decades there has been a growing awareness that local village economies were often connected to broader networks of exchange at an early stage. Already by the twelfth century there had emerged commercial networks that linked weekly markets and small towns to regional urban centres, which in turn served as nexus-points of long-distance trade.

There is a general geographic association between the PAS data and medieval settlements that possessed markets. One-fifth of all medieval finds were made within 1 km of a known medieval market town, or a land area that is only about one-twentieth of the total area of England. Likewise, on a national level there are differences between the compositions of PAS finds near market towns and the total population of all finds. Statistical analyses of the data shows that some objects are much more likely to be found near settlements that had hosted a market, in particular those successful and long-lived medieval markets that survived to the Early Modern Period, which is helpful for establishing distinctions between the material cultural profiles of urban and rural sites. For example pilgrim badges are found in average three times more commonly in the vicinity of a market, or over six times near a market that survived to the Early Modern Period. Such information can offer insight on the religious life, or indeed the opportunities for long-distance travel enjoyed by different populations.

The spatial and temporal distribution of PAS finds can also be used to investigate varying intensities of economic activity. Figure 2 maps the broad national pattern of marketing that had emerged by the mid-thirteenth century, based on market charters or direct evidence of market activity. (S. Letters, Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516, 2002, radius = 16 km) While nearly everywhere in England was within a day’s return journey of at least one market site, regions of high or low density activity demonstrate how populations in different areas enjoyed varying degrees of access to multiple, presumably competing franchises. The medium-to-high density region around London, for example, must have been connected to the economy of the city. But the three ‘hottest’ areas were, from left to right, at the Somerset Levels, where the London-Exeter road meets of the Foss Way near waterways discharging into the Bristol Channel; at the upper navigable reaches of the Thames, at a place which the Droitwich Saltways had marked since the Anglo-Saxon period as a major stepping stone between the water highways of the Thames and the Severn; and finally near the intersection of the Icknield Way, the Watling Street and the river Great Ouse.

Figure 2

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These unusual densities of local markets are located around intersections of major cross-country long-distance routes, and also at places that mark the transfer from one form of transportation to another, such as a boat or a ship to a cart or a packhorse. Such zones are evidence that many successful local markets were integrated into broader networks of interregional and perhaps even international exchange, and also highlights their key role in the development of the British medieval economy. The PAS data supports this argument: a high concentration of coin finds indicates that a markedly high level of commercial exchange along the Icknield Way in eastern Midlands dated back to the Anglo-Saxon period, long before significant written records on formal market activity had become available.

The PAS data holds the potential to fill in gaps left by the often very limited documentary evidence on local commerce. Owing to the industriousness of local metal-detectorists, there is high yield of PAS data from around the medieval vills of Saltfleetby and Skidbrooke in coastal Lincolnshire. Saltfleetby was an old economic centre attested in Domesday Book of 1086, but its commercial pre-eminence was usurped by the neighbouring Skidbrooke by the fourteenth century. The pattern of single finds of coins made in the vicinity of the two settlements in Figure 3 starkly illustrates Saltfleetby’s economic decline. In this case it was possible to confirm the changing fortunes of the two vills from written sources, but what our project aims to demonstrate is how a critical approach to the PAS data offers the opportunity to map long-term trends unattainable through other means – ideally including in places not covered by written evidence. The power of the PAS data is founded in its extraordinary spatial and temporal reach across England and Wales, enabling the study of historical developments equally at local and national levels.

Figure 3

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Michael Lewis – mlewis@britishmuseum.org

Eljas Oksanen – e.i.oksanen@cantab.net

For more on the project and the PAS see:

‘Medieval Markets and Portable Antiquities Scheme’, E. Oksanen and M. Lewis, in Medieval Settlement Research 30 (Medieval Settlement Research Group, London, 2015), 54-9.

‘Exploring the Commercial Landscape of Medieval Saltfleetby and Skidbrooke, Lincolnshire, through PAS Data’, E. Oksanen and M. Lewis, in Medieval Archaeology 59 (forthcoming).

Project website: medievalmarketsites.wordpress.com

PAS: finds.org.uk

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2016 Conference blogs – Materiality and Meaning: Goods as Legal and Cultural Currency

Kate Kelsey Staples, West Virginia University, US

Materiality and Meaning: Goods as Legal and Cultural Currency

Medieval people exerted actions on things – they bought and sold; they reused and repaired; they stole. They stored value and meaning in goods. Yet, to what extent can we know how these goods acted on people? And, what can we learn from that action? Medieval court records reveal that material objects, commodities in many cases, shaped lives and tied people in bonds of obligation, real, proclaimed, or denied.

In 1540, Richard Flower sued Edmund Backeton in the Court of Chancery over a wall-hanging, a secondhand saye cloth, for his house in Fletestreet in London (TNA C 1/987/13). Saye was a popular type of cloth used for a variety of purposes by the sixteenth century, and wall-hangings were not uncommon in burgess households. The image in figure 5 in ‘Ways of Seeing Early Modern Decorative Textiles’, in Textile History (47:1, 2016) by Catherine Richardson and Tara Hamling (available on Open Access here: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00404969.2016.1144672?src=recsys) suggests how such wall-hangings in the sixteenth century may have functioned.  Flower and Backeton disagreed over the amount charged, in a classic he-said, she-said equity case. When we read these records, we tend to focus on the business contacts, networks, and disputed amounts. Yet, the saye cloth physically marked the contract between businessmen and it served as a constant point of reference throughout the court record. I argued in this paper for the CHORD conference that by considering this material object we can unlock some new meaning to this case and others like it.

In this record, we have a decidedly one-sided version of the truth. However, the saye cloth as a ‘thing’ served in this case as a buttress of that truth. Without the detail about where the cloth came from, how it was negotiated for, and even where it was hung, Flower’s case against Backeton may have foundered. It allowed the judge to envision, materially, the nature of the dispute and how Flower was wronged. The saye cloth had a value, but it also had a cultural and legal currency. It served as the glue for a business contract, and it provided leverage in a legal setting. Finally, as this material object was a secondhand good, these court records bring the trade in used goods into sharper focus.

Acknowledgements

Thank you to the audience of the 2016 CHORD conference for their thoughts on the paper I delivered at ‘Retailing and Distribution before 1600’. Thank you, too, to my research assistant, Morgan McMinn, who worked on analyzing this case with me.

For additional publications by Kate Kelsey Staples, please see:

‘The Significance of the Secondhand Trade in Europe, 1200-1600’, History Compass 13:6 (June 2015): 297-309.

Daughters of London: Inheriting Opportunity in Late Medieval London. Brill Academic Publishers, 2011.

‘Fripperers and the Used Clothing Trade in Late Medieval London’, Medieval Clothing and Textiles, 6 (May 2010): 151-171.

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Conference: ‘Retailing and Distribution before 1600’

The conference on:

‘Retailing and Distribution before 1600’

will take place at the University of Wolverhampton

on 15 September 2016

The programme, together with abstracts, registration details and further information, can be found at:

http://home.wlv.ac.uk/~in6086/conf2016.htm

The programme includes:

Graham Barton, University of Gloucestershire, UK
Images of roman retailers

Market scene

Anon., Netherlandish, 16th century, The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, 1959, The Metroplotan Museum of Art. Image courtesy of http://www.metmuseum.org

Stuart Brookes, UCL Institute of Archaeology, UK
Reassessing the transport geography of early medieval England

Luca Clerici, University of Padova, Italy & École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France
Provisioning the marketplace: shoppers, hucksters, and direct sellers in early modern Italy (Vicenza, sixteenth century)

Zoe Hudson, University of Kent, UK
The Shopping Networks of Richard Stonley

Ardle Macmahon, Nottingham University, UK
Advertising and Identity in Roman fixed-point retail establishments in Pompeii

Una McIlvenna, University of Kent, UK
The street singer of news in early modern Europe

Eljas Oksanen, Portable Antiquities Scheme, British Museum, UK
Medieval Markets and Fairs seen through the Portable Antiquities Scheme Data

Mark Page, Victoria County History of Oxfordshire, UK
Who were the shopkeepers of medieval England?

Bethany Pleydell, University of Bristol, UK
‘A most necessary forreyne commodytie for the lande’: Spanish Leather Exports for an English Market, c.1554-1600

Catherine Richardson, University of Kent, UK
‘buy mee a close stoole at london’: domestic shopping between London and the provinces

Martin Roberts, independent researcher and consultant on the Pewter Wreck project, UK
The Overseas Trade of London’s Pewterers in the first half of the 16th Century – evidence from shipwrecks and the archives.

Tabitha Stanmore, University of Bristol / University of Exeter, UK
Make it rain: cunning folk and the sale of magical services in England, 1350-1650

Kate Kelsey Staples, West Virginia University, US
Materiality and Meaning: Goods as Legal and Cultural Currency

Philip Tromans, De Montfort University, UK
Inside Elizabethan Bookshops

Paul Williams, University of Exeter, UK
Shop Fines in Early Tudor Exeter

The conference will be held at the University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton City Campus.

The fee is £22.

Registration is available HERE

The link will take you to the University of Wolverhampton’s e-store: http://www.estore.wlv.ac.uk/browse/product.asp?compid=1&modid=1&catid=380

For further information, please see the conference web-pages, at

http://home.wlv.ac.uk/~in6086/conf2016.htm

Or contact Laura Ugolini, at: L.Ugolini@wlv.ac.uk

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CHORD Conference and Call for Papers: Retailing and Distribution before 1600

Thursday 15 September 2016

University of Wolverhampton

CHORD invites submissions for a conference that explores retailing and distribution before 1600.

Papers focusing on any pre-1600 period (including papers based archaeology) or geographical area are welcome. We invite both experienced and new speakers, including speakers without an institutional affiliation. Potential speakers are welcome to discuss their ideas with the organiser before submission (please see details below). Some of the themes that  might be considered include (but are not limited to):

  • Itinerant and fixed-premises selling
  • Distribution, material culture and archaeology
  • Representations and perceptions of retailers
  • Selling, religion and magic
  • The relationship between craft, manufacture and selling
  • Distribution channels and transport
  • Exchange and ritual
  • Fairs and markets
  • Novel and old commodities, luxuries and the everyday
  • Institutions, politics and corporate structures
  • The impact of wars and conflict
Market scene

Anonymous, Netherlandish, 16th century, The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, the Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1959, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Image courtesy of http://www.metmuseum.org

To submit a proposal:

Individual papers are usually 20 minutes in length, followed by 10 minutes for questions and discussion. We also welcome shorter, 10 minute ‘work in progress’ presentations.

Please send title and abstract of c.300 to 400 words, specifying whether you are proposing a 10 or a 20 minute presentation to Laura Ugolini, at l.ugolini@wlv.ac.uk by 8 April 2016.

If you are unsure whether to submit a proposal or would like to discuss your ideas, please e-mail Laura Ugolini at l.ugolini@wlv.ac.uk

The Conference will be held on Wolverhampton City Campus, University of Wolverhampton, a short walk from Wolverhampton’s bus and train stations.

For further information, please e-mail Laura Ugolini at: l.ugolini@wlv.ac.uk

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Conference: ‘Retailing and Distribution History’

Image with both figures
The conference on

‘Retailing and Distribution History’

will take place at the University of Wolverhampton

on 10 September 2015

The programme, together with abstracts, registration details and further information, can be found at:

http://home.wlv.ac.uk/~in6086/conf2015.htm

The programme includes:

Christine Atha, University of Leeds,
Shopping in the design museum: curating, collecting and shopping for design

Emily Baines, De Montfort University
Concentrating on Fashion: the home market retail and distribution structure for British dress textiles 1919-40

Lucy Bailey, University of Northampton and Jon Stobart, Manchester Metropolitan University
Taking a long look at the English village shop

Bruno Blondé, University of Antwerp and Jon Stobart, Manchester Metropolitan University
The language of value: a comparative approach to newspaper advertisements for auctions of second-hand household goods in eighteenth-century England and the Low Countries

Rika Fujioka, Kansai University
The development of Japanese department stores along with the growing ready-made clothes market from the 1950s to the 1970s

Janina Gosseye, Delft University of Technology
The Janus-faced suburban shopping centre: the Low Countries in search of a suitable shopping paradigm

Graham Harding, St Cross College, Oxford
Competition is useless: Gilbey’s and the emergence of modern retailing, 1855-1914

Richard Hawkins, University of Wolverhampton and Hildegard Norton-Uhl, University of Wolverhampton
Paprika Schlesinger: The Development of a Luxury Retail Shoe Brand in Belle Époque Vienna

Clare Hoare, King’s College London
Female business owners: a study of grocers in Edwardian London

Jennifer Holt,
Retailing and wholesaling c 1600: a Lune Valley case study

Ulla Ijäs, University of Turku
English consumer goods in nineteenth-century St. Petersburg and its environs

Sarah Laurenson, University of Edinburgh
‘In enclose herewith five compasses’: retailing jewellery and small luxuries in rural Scotland during the long nineteenth century

Lucile Peytavin, University of Lyon 2
Female haberdashers and haberdashers in La Motte-de-Galaure and in the north of Drome in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

Martin Purvis, University of Leeds
Retailing in English suburbs during the 1920s and 1930s: development, deficiency and diversity

Gabi Schopf, Universität Bern
Buying and selling consumer goods in the eighteenth century: rural retailing in the Canton of Bern

Pol Serrahima i Balius, Universitat de Lleida
Urban grain markets and suburban agrarian communities: Barcelona and its surroundings in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries

Shelley Tickell, University of Hertfordshire
Selecting shops to steal from in the eighteenth century metropolis – which retailers were most vulnerable to shoplifting?

The conference will be held in the Millennium City Building, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton campus.

The fee is £26.

For further information and to register, please see the conference web-pages, at:

home.wlv.ac.uk/~in6086/conf2015.htm

Or contact Karin Dannehl at K.Dannehl@wlv.ac.uk or Laura Ugolini, at: L.Ugolini@wlv.ac.uk

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